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自考英语二教材英文翻译第一课:Text A Critical Reading

来源:福建自考网 发表时间:2020-09-14 16:30

Text A Critical Reading

Critical reading applies to non-fiction writing in which the author puts forth a position or seeks to make a statement. Critical reading is active reading. It involves more than just understanding what an author is saying. Critical reading involves questioning and evaluating what the author is saying, and forming your own opinions about what the author is saying. Here are the things you should do to be a critical reader.

批判性地阅读

批判性阅读适合于那种作者提出一个观点或试图陈述一个说法的纪实类写作。批判性阅读是积极阅读。它不仅仅包括理解作者说了些什么,还包括质疑和评价作者的话,并对此形成自己的观点。成为一名批判性阅读者需要做到以下几点。

Consider the context of what is written. You may be reading something that was written by an author from a different cultural context than (=from) yours. Or, you may be reading something written some time ago in a different time context than yours. In either case, you must recognize and take into account any differences between your values and attitudes and those represented by the author.

考虑写作背景。你所读的可能是与你有不同文化背景的人所写的,或者是与你有不同时代背景的人多年以前所写的。无论哪种情况,你都必须注意并考虑你的价值观和态度与作者所代表的价值观和态度有何不同。

Question assertions made by the author. Don't accept what is written at face value(完全地, 以面值/表象). Before accepting what is written, be certain that the author provides sufficient support for any assertions made. Look for facts, examples, and statistics that provide support. Also, look to see if (=whether) the author has integrated the work of authorities.

质疑作者的论点。不要轻信作品的表面意思。在接受作者观点前,首先要确定作者作出的每一个论点都有足够的论据支持。找出能支持该论点的事实、实例、和数据。另外,注意作者是否参考了权威著作。

Compare what is written with other written work on the subject. Look to see that what is written is consistent with what others have written about the subject. If there are inconsistencies, carefully evaluate the support the author provides for the inconsistencies.

与同主题文章进行比较。查看该作者的文章与其他作者关于同一主题的文章是否有一致性。如果存在不一致性,对不一致的地方背后的论据支持要进行仔细甄别。

Analyze assumptions made by the author. Assumptions are whatever the author must believe is true in order to make assertions. In many cases, the author's assumptions are not directly stated. This means you must read carefully in order to identify any assumptions. Once you identify an assumption, you must decide whether or not the assumption is valid.

分析作者提出的假设。假设是作者认为具有正确性的前提,基于这些前提作者才能提出论点。很多时候作者的假设并没有直接说明,这就意味着你必须通过仔细阅读来发现这些假设。一旦发现某一假设,你必须判断这一假设是否合理。

Evaluate the sources the author uses. In doing this, be certain that the sources are credible. For example, Einstein is a credible source if the author is writing about landmark achievements in physics. Also be certain that the sources are relevant. Einstein is not a relevant source when the subject is poetry. Finally, if the author is writing about a subject in its current state, be sure that the sources are current. For example, studies done by Einstein in the early 20th century may not be appropriate if the writer is discussing the current state of knowledge in physics.

鉴别文章出处。鉴别时要确保文章出处真实可信。例如,如果文章是关于物理学里程碑式的成就,那么爱因斯坦的论述就是可靠的出处。此外还要确保出处具有相关性。如果文章主题是诗歌,那么爱因斯坦的论述就不是相关出处。最后,如果作者写的是某个主题当前的情形,那就要确保出处来源也是当前最新的。例如,如果作者讨论的是物理学知识的现状,那么爱因斯坦在二十世纪早期进行的研究可能就不适合作出处了。

Identify any possible author bias. A written discussion of American politics will likely look considerably different depending on whether the writer is a Democrat or a Republican. What is written may very well reflect a biased position. You need to take this possible bias into account when reading what the author has written. That is, take what is written with "a grain of salt" (有保留地).

甄别作者可能带有的偏见。有关美国政治的书面论述可能因作者是共和党人或民主党人迥然而异。作者所写的内容很可能反映其带有偏见的立场。阅读时要考虑到这种偏见存在的可能性。也就是说,要对文章内容“半信半疑”。

By being a critical reader, you will become better informed and may change your views as appropriate.

成为一名批判性阅读者,你的思路会不断拓宽,观点会更加合理。

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